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Grid Keratotomy Surgery

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    What is a Grid Keratotomy?

    Photo Credit: Boxer Forum

    A grid keratotomy is a surgical procedure involving the outer layer, known as the epithelium, and stroma, known as the thickest layer of the cornea. The procedure is minimally invasive and treats chronic ulcers on the surface of the dog’s eye. 

    The ulcers on the eye are rather painful and can change in size and shape over time. The purpose of the grid keratotomy is to stimulate the damaged outer layer of the eye to attach back to the eye and restore it back to its normal state.

    What Does a Grid Keratotomy Treat in Dogs?

    Chronic ulcers on the surface of the dog’s eye generally stem from physical trauma. The  ulcers typically cause constant discharge and tearing from the eye as well as swollen redness. In some instances, topical and oral treatments may be used as the first route before a grid keratotomy is performed. 

    What Happens During a Grid Keratotomy?

    Photo Credit: Veterian Key

    Since a grid keratotomy is minimally invasive, general anesthesia is not required. In preparation for the procedure, your dog will be sedated and topical anesthesia will be applied using drops on the affected eye. 

    Once the patient is prepped, an eyelid speculum will be used to prevent the dog’s eyelids from moving. Any loose epithelium tissue will be removed utilizing a cotton swab against the surface of the eye. Your dog will be restricted in order to prevent any movement and a needle will be used to prick the eye. Using a 20 gauge needle, multiple pricks and scratches are made through the stroma, or the thickest layer of the cornea. These pricks and scratches stimulate the epithelium, or the eye’s outer layer, to heal by making it easier to reattach to the stroma. 

    How Much Does a Grid Keratotomy Cost?

    A grid keratotomy can range anywhere from $500 up to $1,000. Since general anesthesia isn’t required, this helps to keep the cost down. However, it’s important to note that cost is also dependent upon follow-up visits and care necessary. In some cases, multiple procedures may need to be performed, increasing the overall cost of treatment. 

    How Can a Grid Keratotomy Be Prevented?

    Unfortunately, some dogs are predisposed to chronic eye ulcers that lead to the need for a grid keratotomy. Boxers and other breeds of dogs who have bulging eyes are especially prone to eye ulcers and eye issues. 


    It’s also important to have your dog’s eye ulcer assessed sooner rather than later, which may prevent further issues from occurring. 

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    Entropion in Dogs: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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      What is Entropion in Dogs?

      Photo Credit: VCA Hospitals

      Entropion is the inward curling of the eyelids. This causes irritation and discomfort because the hairy eyelid skin comes into close touch with the eye surface and eyelashes rub against the eye. Both eyes are usually afflicted in the majority of instances. It is most commonly detected in puppies under the age of one year. 

      What Causes Entropion in Dogs?

      There are two main causes of entropion:

      Primary Entropion

      Primary entropion is the genetic predisposition to develop the condition. This may either be a result of being a predisposed breed or having a hereditary history of entropion. Physical characteristics to consider that can cause entropion to include:

      • The shape of the skull
      • The shape of the bone cavity that contains the eyeball
      • Gender
      • Ample skin folds and wrinkles around the eyes
      • The length of the eyelid

      Acquired Entropion

      Acquired entropion is the result of trauma to the eye. Forms of trauma that can cause entropion in dogs include:

      • Eye injuries
      • Eyelid scarring 
      • Nerve damage
      • Systemic dermatological conditions

      Who’s at Risk of Developing Entropion?

      Entropion is a hereditary condition and is more likely to develop in certain breeds. The most typically afflicted dogs are those with large facial wrinkles and a “droopy eye” appearance. These breeds include English Bulldogs, Shar-Peis, Pugs, Golden and Labrador Retrievers, Chow Chows, and Rottweilers. 

      What are the Symptoms of Entropion in Dogs?

      Most dogs who have entropion ​​will squint, close their eyes, and weep excessively (epiphora), while some may develop a mucoid discharge. Many flat-faced dogs with medial entropion (involvement of the corner of the eyes towards the nose) show no symptoms of pain. Here are all the symptoms of entropion in dogs:

      • Eye redness/conjunctivitis
      • Squinting
      • Apparent swelling around eyes
      • Excessive tearing
      • Eye discharge
      • Rubbing at eyes
      • Corneal ulcers
      • Excessive blinking/blepharospasms

      How is Entropion Diagnosed?

      It’s fairly easy to spot entropion but a thorough examination is required before going forward with any treatments. ​​A veterinarian would usually anesthetize the eye (since it is often painful) and stain the cornea to assess its integrity or ulceration. After general vets have identified and assessed the severity of the problem, ophthalmologists are frequently consulted, especially in severe cases.

      What is the Treatment for Entropion?

      Photo Credit: South Eastern Animal Hospital

      If entropion is present in dogs at a young age, vets may try something called “lid tacking”, which is a very minimally invasive procedure compared to surgery. A stitch is introduced above, below, or both the lids in this approach (depending on the number of lids impacted) in the hopes that the lids would develop in a “rolled out” fashion. In the long run, this method isn’t always effective

      The optimal entropion treatment depends on the severity of the condition, although entropion surgery is frequently required to correct the lid deformity. This form of plastic surgery (known as “blepharoplasty”) needs the precise excision of a crescent-shaped section of tissue above the injured lid to rotate the lid outwards. In some dogs, surgery is necessary, particularly in those who have been severely injured or in young, maturing pups whose lids may change in form as they age.

      For dogs with extensive skin folds over the eyes, “brow-raising” treatments, which need permanent implants, provide an alternative to entropion surgery. This approach isn’t commonly utilized, and its effectiveness is currently being researched.

      Can You Prevent Entropion?

      Entropion, unfortunately, cannot always be prevented due to the predisposition as a result of a dog’s physical traits which are a part of their breed.

      The only thing you can do is try to catch it as soon as possible so that the symptoms don’t get worse and the recovery proceeds as easily as possible.

      If your dog comes from a breed that is prone to entropion, you should pay special attention to his eye health. Keep them clean and take them to the vet for checks on a regular basis.

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      How to Prevent Common Conditions that Cause Eye Pain in Dogs

      hand putting eye drops into the eye of a shit zu with glaucoma
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        There are several conditions that can cause eye pain in dogs. Left untreated, eye pain can worsen and lead to more serious issues. Read below to learn about a few common conditions that cause eye pain in dogs and what you can do to take preventative measures: 


        hand putting eye drops into the eye of a shit zu with glaucoma
        Photo Credit:

        What is Glaucoma? 

        Glaucoma is a condition that occurs when there is an imbalance in the production and drainage of fluid in the eye. This imbalance causes a buildup of fluid that increases eye pressure to abnormal and unhealthy levels. This increased pressure may lead to the destruction of the retina and optic disk. The optic disk is the portion of the eye where the optic nerve enters which carries visual information from the eye to the brain.

        How Can You Prevent Glaucoma in Dogs? 

        Age is one of the largest factors when it comes to the degeneration of the eye structure. As your dog gets older, the fluid drainage system in the eye becomes weaker. 

        Providing supplemental antioxidants, vitamins E, C, beta-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, and rutin that promote eye health and reduce damage to cells in the eye may help prevent glaucoma. Avoid the use of tight collars on the neck that can increase intraocular pressure. Instead, use harnesses that focus on the torso.

        Signs of Glaucoma in Dogs: 

        • Watery discharge from the eye 
        • Rubbing or pawing at the eye 
        • Bulging of the eyeball; whites of the eye may turn red 
        • Cloudy, bluish appearance to the eye 
        • Dilated pupil; or pupil does not respond to light 

        Lens Luxation 

        graphic of lens luxation in dogs
        Photo Credit: VCA Hospitals

        What is Lens Luxation?

        Lens luxation is a condition in dogs caused by a weakness in the threads holding the lens of the eye in place. Sometimes, this weakness may even lead to breaking causing the lens to dislocate from its position completely. The lens can fall backward into the eye which is referred to as a posterior luxation. However, the lens can also fall forward into the eye, referred to as an anterior luxation. When an anterior luxation occurs, the drainage of the fluid is blocked. Posterior luxation of the eye tends to not cause too much discomfort, while anterior luxation can be extremely painful and may even lead to permanent blindness. 

        How Can You Prevent Lens Luxation in Dogs?

        Lens luxation is hereditary in some dogs and is most commonly observed in terrier breeds, Shar Peis, and Border Collies. If you own one of these breeds, be sure to keep an eye out for any signs of discomfort or change in the appearance of the eye. Especially in these breeds,  your dog should be taken to regular eye examinations with your veterinarian to monitor eye health. Your veterinarian can check your dog’s eyes regularly so that any increase in intraocular pressure or eye disorder is diagnosed and treated quickly and correctly. 

        Signs of Lens Luxation in Dogs: 

        • Sudden change in the appearance of the eye; the eye may appear white 
        • Keeping their eyes closed more than usual 
        • Increased tears 
        • Inflammation of the eyes, showing cloudiness and possibly redness 
        • Reluctance to exercise 
        • Depression or lethargy 


        gloved hand on the face of rotweiler with conjunctivitis
        Photo Credit: Better Pet

        What is Conjunctivitis? 

        Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the mucous membrane in the eye, called the conjunctiva tissue. The conjunctiva covers the eyeball and lines the eyelids. Dogs have a third eyelid, referred to as a nictitating membrane, in the corner of their eye, which is also covered by the conjunctiva. There are a number of items that cause conjunctivitis in dogs including, viral infections, immune-system-related disorders, tumors of the eyelid and conjunctiva, dry eye, and trauma to the eye or irritation from foreign bodies entering the eye.  Other disorders of the eye may lead to conjunctivitis as well, such as glaucoma

        How Can You Prevent Conjunctivitis in Dogs? 

        Conjunctivitis in dogs is fairly common. Some causes of Conjunctivitis are virtually impossible to prevent. However, other causes may be prevented. Avoid letting your dog put their head out of your moving car’s window. The wind can irritate a dog’s eyes and debris can lead to irritation and Conjunctivitis or other issues in the eye. In addition, keeping up to date with vaccines, such as distemper, prevents viral infections which can lead to Conjunctivitis. 

        Signs of Conjunctivitis in Dogs: 

        • Pawing at the eye or excessive blinking/squinting 
        • Eyelids and surrounding area of the eye are swollen and red 
        • Green discharge from the eye 
        • Redness in the white of the eye 
        • Lethargy 

        It’s important to be aware of your dog’s eyes’ normal appearance to be able to closely monitor any changes. If you think your dog may be experiencing eye pain, consult a veterinarian. Visit our Specialist Directory to locate an Ophthalmology Specialist.